This is a simplified version of my process for your reading pleasure. What I have removed was the hours I spent drawing things and starting over. Hours of research involved looking up things and getting ideas. Also time spent emailing clients hoping they would get back to you within 48 hours only to get a response two weeks later that they wanted something tweaked.
I don’t think there really is an ultimate step by step process of designing a logo. Lots of people have things they do that works for them.